Outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures in dogs and cats

Robin McIntyre and others, University of California, Davis

The RECOVER (REassessment Campaign On VEterinary Resuscitation) initiative by the American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care in 2012 identified large gaps in our understanding of the risk factors, prevalence and outcomes in companion animal patients treated for cardiopulmonary arrest. The authors therefore looked at the clinical features of 121 canine and 30 feline cases which underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Among these cases 87 (58%) attained a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), while 15 (10%) were still alive 24 hours later and only eight (5%) were discharged alive. Cardiovascular abnormalities were the most common suspected precipitating cause of cardiopulmonary arrest. Earlier resuscitation procedures were associated with a greater likelihood of survival, emphasising the importance of prompt recognition and initiation of CPR. Although the ROSC rates in this study were similar to those in studies in human patients, the overall survival rate was lower This would suggest that improvements in the care of patients in the period following CPR procedures could produce benefits in the management of future cases.

Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 24(6), 693-704

Effects of posture and anatomical location on arterial blood pressure in anaesthetised dogs

Mark Acierno and others, Louisiana State University

Measuring systemic arterial blood pressure has long been recognised as an important part of the monitoring of patients during general anaesthesia as well as in evaluating the response of critically ill patients to treatment. The authors investigated the effects of using different anatomical locations – the superficial palmar arch, dorsal pedal artery and median sacral artery – on direct arterial blood pressure measurements, and also recorded the results for each site with the animal in dorsal and right lateral recumbency They found significant differences in systolic arterial blood pressure based on hind limb measurements compared with carpus measurements in both body positions.

American Journal of Veterinary Research 76(3), 266-271

Physical therapy in a dog with bilateral severe plantigrade stance

Jennifer Rees and others, Oregon State University

A plantigrade stance in a dog is often due to trauma to the achilles tendon or iatrogenic injury to the sciatic nerve during surgery and in either case the prognosis is usually poor The authors describe a case in a 3.5 year old Staffordshire terrier bitch which had a seven week history of a bilateral plantigrade stance following an ovariohysterectomy procedure. The patient was treated with a range of physical therapy modalities, including neuromuscular electrical stimulation, ultrasound and low-level laser therapy plus the use of orthotics and progressive wound care. Fifteen months later the patient showed increased muscle mass, a return of segmental reflexes and nociception, and could walk with higher carriage of the hock.

Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 51(1), 31-35

Biomechanical assessment of different forms of finger trap suture for securing catheters

Zachary Ricker and others, Oklahoma State University

Secure fixation of catheters is essential to prevent both minor and potentially life-threatening complications resulting from their premature removal, including sepsis and peritonitis. Multiple description of finger trap style sutures for securing catheters are listed in the veterinary literature. The authors compare the biomechanical properties of three different suture patterns. They conclude that a finger trap suture pattern with fewer knots may perform better than those tied in more traditional patterns involving six or more square knots. Sutures using polyvinyl chloride material generally performed better than polypropylene constructs.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 246(5), 515-521

Study of risk factors for equine obesity based on owner- reported body condition scores

Charlotte Robin and others, Animal Health Trust, Newmarket

Obesity in horses is associated with impaired athletic performance and medical conditions such as laminitis. However, previous studies have indicated that many horse owners fail to recognise when their animal is overweight. The authors investigated the prevalence of owner-reported obesity in the UK equine population and tried to identify possible risk factors. Breed (draught type, native or Welsh breeds), ease of maintaining weight (those described as ‘good doers') and primary use (pleasure riding and non-ridden horses) were among the factors associated with increased risk of obesity This information may aid better targeting of owner education strategies.

Equine Veterinary Journal 47(2), 196-201

Best practice in controlling zoonotic infections during educational events

Gonzalo Erdozain and others, Kansas State University

Educational events or facilities, such as petting zoos, which encourage human-animal interactions carry the potential risk of transmitting zoonotic conditions such as Campylobacter, Salmonella or E coli infections. The authors identify those factors that might increase the potential risk of transmitting bacterial conditions (eg, not washing hands after touching an animal) or to bite injuries (such as touching an animal around the head). They have also drawn up guidelines on best practice which are likely to prove useful for those planning events involving contact between animals and members of the public.

Zoonoses and Public Health 62(2), 90-99

DOI: 10.1080/17415349.2015.1047814

• VOL 30 • July 2015 • Veterinary Nursing Journal