Epidemiology of sepsis in hospitalised cats

Jonathan Babyak and Claire Sharp, Tufts University Massachusetts

Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in human hospitals. While the epidemiology of sepsis has been studied extensively in human patients, very little is known about the equivalent condition in veterinary patients. The authors investigated evidence of systemic inflammatory disease in a veterinary teaching hospital over a three-month period, looking for signs involving raised rectal temperature, respiratory rates and white blood cell counts. They found that the prevalence of sepsis on admission was 6.2 cases per 100 cases while 1.5 in 100 patients developed sepsis during hospitalisation. Four of 17 cats admitted with sepsis and three of four that developed the condition while hospitalised either died or were euthanased. The majority of cases were affected by gram-negative organisms and the peritoneal space and urogenital system were the most common septic foci.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 249 (1), 65-71

Consistency of results with a canine osteoarthritis pain guide

Ann Essner and others, Uppsala University, Sweden

An ability to identify reliable and clinically relevant outcome measures is essential to assess the effectiveness of a veterinary treatment. In painful conditions such as chronic osteoarthritis, a range of pain indices have been developed to monitor the physiological and behavioural expression of pain in dogs. The authors investigated whether one such guide, the owner-reported measure canine brief pain inventory can reliably measure clinical outcomes when translated from English into Swedish. Their findings suggest that the translation provides results with a high degree of consistency and could reliably discriminate between sound and arthritic dogs.

Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 59(44) (Open Access)

Glucagon infusions in the treatment of canine hypoglycaemia

Kristen Datte and others, Ohio State University Columbus

Hypoglycaemia in dogs is defined as a blood glucose concentration of less than 60mg/dL. The condition may occur is response to a range of disease processes and may cause clinical signs of altered behaviour; weakness, ataxia and seizures. The authors investigate the use of a glucagon infusion as adjunctive therapy to dextrose treatment in nine dogs admitted with hypoglycaemia, The agent was given as a bolus of 50ng/kg followed by a constant rate infusion of 15ng/kg/min. Statistically significant improvements in blood glucose were apparent after glucagon administration compared with dextrose alone. Glucagon may be particularly useful in patients with insulinoma or a limited response to dextrose alone.

Journal ofVeterinary Emergency and Critical Care 26(6), 775-781

Effects of three different topical treatments on skin wounds in horses

Caroline Gillespie-Harmon and others, Purdue University Indiana

Skin wounds are among the most common conditions seen by equine veterinarians. Lesions affecting the distal limbs may be particularly difficult to treat. The authors compare the results of treating experimental injuries with three different preparations, a silver sulphadiazine cream, a triple antimicrobial ointment and a honey-like hyperosmolar nanoemulsion. They found that none of the three treatments produced faster wound closure than the untreated controls. But for contaminated wounds, using the triple antimicrobial ointment containing neomycin, bacitracin and poly- mixin B may help to prevent the formation of exuberant granulation tissue.

American Journal ofVeterinary Research 78(5), 638-646

Antimicrobial prescriptions in UK small animal practice

David Singleton and others, University of Liverpool

Antimicrobial resistance has been highlighted as an increasingly important global health threat and the use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary practice is under growing scrutiny The authors examined the patterns of antimicrobial prescribing in companion animal practice using data collected from practice computer systems under the SAVSNET initiative. Their findings suggest that more antimicrobials are given to dogs than to cats but that the overall use in both species is going down. The authors note that this study can help provide the tools and data needed to ensure that antimicrobial agents are used responsibly in veterinary patients.

The Veterinary Journal 224(1), 18-24

Gastrointestinal tolerance of a high-protein, low carbohydrate canine diet

Gwendoline Chaix and others, Virbac, Carros, France

Feeding dogs a high-protein, low carbohydrate diet has been shown to improve body weight and composition, and enhance glycaemic regulation. However, concerns have been raised about the digestive tolerance of such diets and the likelihood of problems during the transition from conventional to HP-LC food. The authors tested three new commercial diets intended for young small, medium and large- breed dogs in 129 client-owned animals, of which 30% had already shown sensitivity to their normal diet. More than 94% of owners reported satisfaction with their pet's response to the new diet. The volume, consistency and odour of the dogs' stools was not significantly changed.

International Journal of Applied Veterinary Research 14(2), 190-202 

Veterinary Nursing Journal • VOL 32 • September 2017