Hazards to female reproductive health in veterinary practice

Joni Scheftel and others, Minnesota Department of Health, St Paul

Veterinary staff may encounter a range of potential health hazards during their routine work, including ionising radiation, anaesthetic gases, zoonotic diseases and aggressive patients. Many of these factors may be of particular concern to women due to their effects on fertility and during pregnancy. The authors carried out a comprehensive literature search to identify publications addressing hazards to female reproductive health in the veterinary workplace, to evaluate and summarise recommendations on minimising risk, and identify gaps in current knowledge. They point out that the demographic trends within the veterinary industry will expose increasing numbers of women of child-bearing age to these various health hazards. They conclude that while further investigations are needed into various aspects of occupational health and safety enough is known already to justify an increased focus on mitigating these hazards. They propose that veterinary staff should receive greater training at the beginning of their careers in recognising hazards and responding appropriately The goal, they say must be to develop a safety-focussed work culture in veterinary practice.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 250(8), 862-872

Evaluation of the effects of epilepsy in dogs on their caregivers

Julie Nettifee and others, North Carolina State University Raleigh

Epilepsy is a common condition in dogs and dealing with this chronic disorder requires considerable commitment from the owners. The authors carried out an online survey to investigate the financial and emotional impact on owners who are caring for an epileptic dog. A total of 225 responses were received, with the majority expressing satisfaction with their pet's quality of life. Satisfaction scores were lower in those cases where the condition was poorly controlled or the dog experienced adverse reactions to medical treatment. The results of this study provide information that can help veterinary staff in educating clients and setting realistic expectations for the pet's treatment and quality of life.

Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 53(3), 143-149

Nutraceutical approach to the management of struvite uroliths in cats

Sergio Canello and others, Forza 10 USA Corp., Orlando, Florida

Urolithiasis is responsible for 15 to 23% of cases of feline lower urinary tract disease with struvite-based stones the most commonly recognised form. The authors investigated the effectiveness of a proprietary nutraceutical diet developed for the management of this condition. The diet, containing a range of botanical extracts formulated with DL-methionine, was given to 33 cats with confirmed struvite urolithiasis for 30 days. By the end of the trial there were significant changes from baseline in urine colour, turbidity and pH. The presence of microscopic struvite crystals in the urine was also significantly reduced.

International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine 15(1), 19-25

Effect of different types of classical music in a veterinary hospital

Whitney Engler and Melissa Bain, University of California Davis

Visiting a veterinary clinic can be a stressful event for a canine patient and it has been shown in various studies that music can decrease the expression of stress-related behaviour. The authors investigated the effects of playing classical music during routine appointments on the dog's behaviour and owner satisfaction. Owners rated their pets as being less anxious in the consult room than in the waiting area. The study suggests that playing classical music at low volume can be a simple and cost-effective way of improving owner satisfaction but further studies are needed to assess the effects on the levels of anxiety experienced by the animal.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251 (2), 195-200

Suspected salmonellosis in cats receiving a commercial raw meat-based diet

Federica Giacometti and others, University of Bologna, Italy

Salmonellosis is one of the commonest food-borne infections in humans with an incidence in Europe of 23.4 cases per 100,000 people. Pets are susceptible to the same pathogen but there are no reliable data on the prevalence of disease in other species. The authors describe an incident in which two cats from the same household developed vomiting and diarrhoea with a strong suspicion that Salmonella was the causal agent. Both cats had been receiving a commercial raw food diet based on frozen chicken. They emphasise the need for veterinary practitioners to explain the potential zoonotic risks of raw-meat diets to those clients contemplating using such products.

BMC Veterinary Research 13:224 (Open Access)

Relationship between the source of pet acquisition and subsequent euthanasia

Alejandra Montoya and others, University of Queensland, Gatton

An estimated 140,000 healthy dogs and cats are euthanased each year in Australian animal welfare shelters and government pounds. The authors questioned the owners of 5391 dogs and 5581 cats surrendered to a local shelter over a three period on where they had original acquired the pet. The main sources of dogs taken to the shelter were other pet shops and shelters while cats were mainly acquired from a shelter or had been bred at home. For adult dogs the highest euthanasia rate was among those animals acquired through newspaper advertisements. Adult cats obtained as gifts from a friend or family member were associated with the highest euthana-sia rate.

Australian Veterinary Journal 95(6), 194-200

Dog bite injuries in people in relation to breed

Nanci Creedon and Paraic O'Suilleabhain, Creedons College, Cork

The Irish government introduced legislation in 1986 prohibiting or placing restrictions on the ownership of certain dog breeds considered more dangerous than non-regulated breeds. The 11 breeds listed included popular pet breeds such as German shepherds and Dobermanns along with those types (notably American pit bull terriers) that are also prohibited in the UK. The authors analysed 140 incidents in which a person received medical treatment as a result of a dog bite. In 40 cases the dog was from one of the listed breeds and the remaining 100 were non-regulated breeds. The results showed no significant differences in the type of bite inflicted or the level of treatment needed between regulated and non-regulated breeds.

Irish Veterinary Journal 70: 23 (Open Access)

Effects of a novel dietary supplement on recovery of muscle from exercise-related injury

Michael Lindinger and others, The Nutraceutical Alliance, Campbellville, Ontario

A number of nutraceutical products are commercially available which are claimed to have beneficial effects in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation resulting from intensive exercise in horses. The authors describe a study on such product, containing diverse ingredients including dried mushrooms, golden flax-seed, omega-3 fatty acids and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii yeast cells. Seven horses received this product as part of a normal diet for 23 days. Compared to control horses receiving a standard diet, these animals had increas
ed superoxide dismutase activity and decreased glycosaminoglycan in their synovial fluid. Both changes are thought to indicate reduced levels of oxidative stress.

Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 48(1), 52-60

Cardiac arrest in an American cocker spaniel during a deep ear flush procedure

Alexandra Gould and others, VCA Newark Animal Hospital, Newark, Delaware

A 14-year-old spayed female American cocker spaniel with chronic bilateral otitis media was presented for a deep ear flush procedure under a general anaesthetic. During treatment of the more severely affected right ear, a rapid decrease in heart rate was detected and all ECG activity ceased. Isoflurane administration was immediately discontinued and atropine and epinephrine injected intravenously while chest compression and ventilation were performed. The animal made a full recovery The incident was assumed to be a result of cardiac arrest due to stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 250(9), 1023-1026

Effect of duration of fasting on gastro-oesophageal reflux during orthopaedic surgery

Sivert Viskjer and Lennart Sjöstrom, Strömsholm Small Animal Referral Hospital, Strömsholm, Sweden

Reflux of gastric contents into the oesophagus and lungs is one of the major complications of general anaesthesia. Traditionally surgical patients have been starved for several hours before induction to minimise this risk. However some recent studies have questioned the value of fasting in preventing reflux. The authors describe a study in dogs which were either starved for 18 hours before undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery or were given a small meal three hours before treatment. Their findings support standard procedures as dogs given a pre-surgery meal had a significantly greater risk of reflux and regurgitation.

American Journal of Veterinary Research 78(2), 144-150

Mammary gland tumours in a male Cocker spaniel

Soon-Chan Kwon and others, Kangwon National University South Korea

Mammary gland tumours are the most common neoplasia found in intact female dogs but are rarely detected in male dogs. The authors describe one such case in a 13-year-old intact male Cocker spaniel which presented with an acute right ruptured caudal abdominal mass. This was removed along with a smaller mass in the first right mammary gland. Later further masses appeared in the left fifth mammary gland and in one testis. Examination of each mammary tumour identified them as adenocarcinoma and the testis mass was found to be a Leydig cell adenoma. The case showed that mammary and testes tumours can occur in male dogs without evidence of female sex hormone abnormalities.

Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 59:20 (Open Access)

Complications of primary wound closure in castrated horses

Mickael Robert and others, Oniris, Nantes, France

While castration is one of the oldest veterinary procedures and one of the most frequently carried out tasks for equine practitioners, it is also one of the most common causes of malpractice claims. Castration with primary wound closure by suturing reportedly has a lower complication rate than secondary intention healing, in which the wound is left open to heal naturally. The authors examined records from 159 horses castrated with primary wound closure. Short term complications included scrotal haematoma (7.6% of patients), colic (3.8%), fever (2.5%) and peri-incisional oedema (1.9%). The complication rate was significantly reduced by ligation of the cremaster muscle and use of electrocautery.

Canadian Veterinary Journal 58(5), 466-471

Veterinary Nursing Journal • VOL 32 • October 2017