Clinical performance of a point-of-care test for bacteriuria in dogs

Anna Uhl and others, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Unless a veterinary practice can carry out its own microbiology testing, urine samples in cases of suspected bacteriuria must to be sent to a commercial lab within 24 hours of collection. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the associated costs and delays mean that in many cases, treatment may begin without carrying out urine culture to identify the organisms involved or their antibacterial susceptibility The authors examined the performance of a commercially available compartmentalised urine culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test plate (CCSP) technology developed for use in canine patients. Their findings showed that the equipment was effective in detecting bacteriuria, with an overall sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 100%. However the technology was less accurate in identifying bacterial isolates to the genus (77%) or species (58%) level. Therefore, these results did not support the use of the CCSP test as a replacement for standard methods of bacterial culture and sensitivity testing in dogs with suspected bacteriuria.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251 (8), 922-928

Effects of nail characteristics on surface bacterial counts of surgical personnel

Jade Hardy and others, Washington State University Pullman

The presence of bacteria on the hands of surgical staff is a significant risk factor in the transmission of organisms causing postoperative infections. The fingernails, in particular, can harbour substantial populations of bacteria even after scrubbing. The authors investigated the influence of nail characteristics on bacterial counts of surgical staff before and after scrubbing. They found that nail polish did not influence bacterial counts or types of isolates but nail length was a risk factor for increased bacterial counts. They recommend that surgical staff restrict their nail length to less than 2 mm.

Veterinary Surgery 46(7), 952-961

Testosterone cypionate in treating urinary incontinence in male dogs

Jean-Sebastien Palerme and others, Iowa State University, Ames

Urinary incontinence is a frequent reason for dog owners seeking veterinary advice. While urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence is known to be a regular cause of incontinence in bitches, there is little information on the aetiology and management of the less common condition in male dogs. The authors investigated the effects of testosterone cypionate delivered as an intramuscular injection of 1.5mg/kg every four weeks in eight affected male dogs. There was a good response in three cases, a slight response in one dog and no effect in the remaining four.

Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 53(5), 285-290

Mortality rates and prognostic indicators in outpatient canine parvovirus cases

Kathryn Sarpong and others, Metro Paws Animal Hospital, Dallas, Texas

Canine parvovirus is a severe and often deadly infectious disease which is ideally managed in hospital with aggressive medication and intravenous fluid therapy The high cost of such treatment makes it financially challenging for many owners. The authors investigated the outcomes and prognostic indicators in dogs treated on an outpatient basis. The mortality rate in the first three days following diagnosis was 25%. There was a lower mortality rate of 19% in those dogs that received a calorific supplement, alongside fluids, antimicrobials and an antiemetic.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251 (9), 1035-1041

Chemical castration with zinc gluconate in veterinary field clinics

Brian DiGangi and others, University of Florida, Gainesville

There has been considerable research effort into developing a safe and effective non-surgical method for castrating dogs for use in field hospitals providing veterinary services in remote locations.

The authors describe the results of studies on a promising approach involving zinc gluconate injections into the testis. The method was used in 54 healthy male dogs at a field clinic in the Ecuadoran capital, Quito. The incidence of adverse reactions such as swelling, inflammation or ulceration was lower in the chemically castrated group than in controls which underwent conventional surgical castration. However, the authors do recommend the need for up to seven days follow-up care.

The Veterinary Journal 229(1), 26-30

Cardiac and metabolic variables in obese dogs

Melissa Tropf and others, Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana

Obesity in human patients is associated with obesity-related cardiac dysfunction involving systolic, diastolic and vascular endothelial abnormalities, and there is evidence of a similar relationship in dogs. The authors evaluated cardiac parameters in 29 obese and 17 normal weight small breed dogs. The obese dogs had alterations in cardiac structure and function, as well as insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, hypoadiponectinaemia and increased concentrations of inflammatory markers. The authors suggest that these changes may exacerbate the effects of concurrent cardiac conditions, such as mitral valve disease in obese dogs.

Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 31 (4), 1000-1007

Veterinary Nursing Journal • VOL 33 • March 2018