Puppy socialisation practices of US and Canadian dog owners

Janet Cutler and others, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Behavioural problems are thought to be the main factor in up to 50% of cases in which people decide to relinquish ownership of a dog. Early socialisation of puppies is a critical factor in preventing the development of serious behavioural issues. The authors carried out a survey of 296 puppy owners to assess their efforts during the first 20 weeks of their pet's life to ensure proper socialisation and prevent the development of fear responses to unfamiliar stimuli. A total of 145 owners, or nearly half the group reported attending puppy classes and these dogs were also more likely to be exposed to various noises and unfamiliar situations. Those puppies that attended socialisation classes were less likely than the rest to display signs of fear in response to noises, such as thunder or a vacuum cleaner Overall, one third of puppies received only minimal exposure to people and other dogs outside the home. These findings show there are opportunities for veterinary staff to educate clients about the value of early puppy socialisation.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251(12), 1415-1423

Impact of post discharge surveillance on surgical site infection diagnosis

Danielle Stickney and others, Texas A&M University, College Station

Surgical site infections can lead to various unwelcome postoperative outcomes, including prolonged wound management, revision surgery increased costs and patient mortality The authors investigated the impact of post discharge surveillance on the diagnosis of surgical site infections. A questionnaire was sent to 271 owners of surgical cases and SSIs were identified in 36 (2.83%) cases. Of these, only 72.2% of incidents were documented in the medical records, the remaining 27.8% of cases were found as a result of active post discharge surveillance. Without those efforts, the problem would have been unrecorded by the institution concerned.

Veterinary Surgery 47(1), 66-73

Effects of a moderate-protein, high fibre restriction diet in obese cats

Marissa Pallotto and others, University of Illinois, Urbana

Cat owners seeking to tackle their pets' obesity are recommended to aim for a weight loss target of between 1% and 1.5% of bodyweight a week to avoid the risk of hepatic lipidosis. This would normally require the cats to consume at least 50% of their maintenance energy requirement. The authors investigated the effects of feeding a moderate protein, high fibre diet to 16 neutered male cats. Food intake was adjusted to achieve a 1.5% per week bodyweight loss over 18 weeks. The diet was found to be a safe and effective means of achieving weight loss and the results suggest that current recommendations may overestimate the energy requirements for neutered cats.

American Journal ofVeterinary Research 79(2), 181-190

Correlation between axillary, auricular and rectal body temperature measurements

Brandy Cichocki and others, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater

Accurate body temperature measurements are an important part of a patient's physical examination. Rectal temperature measurements are the standard approach but other methods would be useful in some patients, such as those with rectal disease or an aggressive or nervous temperament. The authors compare the results of temperature measurements from the auricular or axillary sites in comparison with the gold standard. There was stronger agreement between the auricular and rectal temperatures but there was still a discrepancy of 0.6 to 2.2 degrees Celsius between the two, and so rectal measurements should remain as the preferred method.

Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 53(6), 291-296

Safety of reinforced gloves compared with double layers of standard surgical gloves

Galina Hayes and others, University of Guelph, Ontario

Glove perforations have been shown to facilitate the transfer of bacteria into the surgical wound area from the hands of surgical staff. Such events may be uncommon but they are also likely to remain unrecognised during the procedure. The authors compare the risk of perforations with reinforced surgical gloves and with a double layer of conventional gloves. There were no significant differences in the risk of perforations in the two groups with potential contamination risks in about 8% of glove pairs used. The risks of damage to the gloves increased with the duration of surgery in both groups.

Veterinary Surgery 48(8), 981-985

Tranexamic acid to induce emesis following ingestion of toxic material

Kensuke Orito and others, Azabu University Japan

Dogs are frequently presented at veterinary practices after swallowing toxic substances. The administration of an emetic will remove the harmful material from the gastrointestinal tract and prevent further absorption. The authors investigated the use of tranexamic acid, an anti-fibrinolytic agent used to control bleeding following trauma but which also has marked emetic properties. A single 50mg/kg intravenous dose induced emesis in 116 of 137 dogs and treatment was successful with subsequent doses in a further 13 cases. Overall, the adverse effects of treatment were considered to be low and self-limiting.

Japanese Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 79(12), 1978-1982

Horse owners’ ability to recognise signs of laminitis in their animals

Danica Pollard and others, Animal Health Trust, Newmarket

Estimates of the prevalence of laminitis in horses may be affected by the chronic and recurrent nature of the disease, which often results in the owners recognising and treating the condition themselves. But studies that include information supplied by owners would require consistency in their ability to identify clinical signs. The authors assessed the competence of clients from 25 equine practices in noticing evidence of laminitis in their horses. Of 93 cases identified on veterinary examination, 51 patients had been reported as a suspected laminitis case by the clients. However the remaining 42 laminitis cases had not been suspected by the owners.

Equine Veterinary Journal 49(6), 759—766

Analysis of viral strains in white blood cells of naturally infected cats

Andrea Balboni and others, University of Bologna, Italy

Cats are known to be susceptible to various strains of both feline panleukopenia virus and canine parvovirus. The presence of these viruses in apparently healthy cats and their persistence in white blood cells suggest that cats may become long term carriers of infection without overt clinical signs. The authors examined white blood cells from 54 cats, including healthy pets from multicat households and strays. Nine cats including individuals from both groups had positive PCR analyses – four with FPV four with CPV and one with a complex, mixed infection of both viruses. These findings confirm that cats may have a role in the epidemiology of canine parvovirus.

BMC Veterinary Research 14:41 (Open Access)

Risk factors and prognostic indicators in cases of oesophageal foreign bodies

Brigitte Brisson and others, University of Guelph, Ontario

ses involving foreign bodies obstructing the oesophagus may be seen frequently in dogs but are less common in cats due to their more discriminating feeding habits. The authors examined records from 223 canine cases seen at a university clinic over a 20-year period. Terrier breeds were most commonly affected. Endoscopic foreign body retrieval was the preferred treatment option unless there was evidence of perforation requiring surgery. In cases of extended entrapment, together with signs of anorexia, lethargy, increased rectal temperature or oesophageal perforation, there was greater likelihood of surgical intervention.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252(3), 301—308

Consumers knowledge and attitudes towards farm animal welfare

Eryn Bell and others, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater

Wilful ignorance is a well-documented human behaviour in which people deliberately choose to avoid information. Much effort has been directed by researchers at understanding consumer choices over food purchases but whether they want to know about animal welfare issues is a question often ignored in studies to date. The authors asked 1000 people to read information on farm animal production. They found that about one-third of respondents did not want to know about how pregnant sows are raised and preferred to look at a blank screen rather than reading the information provided. Avoiding guilt was shown to be the motivation for this behaviour.

Animal Welfare 26(4), 399-402

Gait analysis and subclinical limb disorders in English bulldogs

Andres Escobar and others, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

English bulldogs are known to have a high incidence of orthopaedic conditions such as hip dysplasia. The authors used kinetic gait analysis methods to investigate the presence of hip dysplasia and gait abnormalities in 30 bulldogs. The dogs showed no signs of pain or discomfort when the hip joints were manipulated but they did have a mean hind limb symmetry index of 19.8%, compared with figures of 0.3 to 9.6% in healthy dogs free of orthopaedic disease. These dogs had hind limb asymmetries and changes in loading consistent with severe hip dysplasia, despite having no visible signs of gait dysfunction.

Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 59:77 (Open Access)

Endocrine components in the serum of mares which reject their foals

Dalia Berlin and others, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

Maternal rejection of the new-born foal is a significant problem in horse breeding establishments and may have serious consequences for the health and welfare of the neonate. This behaviour is known to more commonly affect primiparous mares and has a higher prevalence in the Arabian breed. The authors investigated various endocrine parameters in the blood of 15 Arabian mares that had rejected their foals, in comparison with similar mares which behaved normally to their offspring. They found that there was significantly higher oestradiol to progesterone ratio in the non-rejecting mares on day 1 after parturition.

The Veterinary Journal 232(1), 40–45

Veterinary Nursing Journal • VOL 33 • April 2018