Autotransfusion in the management of catastrophic vascular haemorrhage

Rita Ghosal and Alexandra Bos, Mississauga-Oakville Veterinary Emergency Hospital, Ontario

Autotransfusion is a form of autologous blood transfusion in which blood shed during surgery is salvaged and transfused back into the patient. This carries considerable risks because the blood will be non-sterile and has not treated with anticoagulants, so there is a possibility of infection and/or thrombosis. The authors describe a case in a six-year-old Labrador retriever which had catastrophic haemorrhage from a peripheral vessel damaged during an orthopaedic procedure. The blood was collected in suction cannisters and any clots were skimmed off. Nearly 60% of the dog's blood volume was collected and returned over a two-hour period. The surgical procedure was aborted and then resumed three days later after the bleeding had stopped. Although clearly not ideal, the approach taken in this case may be life-saving in patients experiencing massive haemorrhage.

Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 29(4), 439-443

Sodium hypochlorite/salicylic acid shampoo in treating staphylococcal pyoderma

Valerie Fadok and Katherine Irwin, Zoetis Inc., Bellaire, Texas

The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudin- termedius has increased interest in the use of topical therapy for the treatment of canine pyoderma. Chlorhexidine-based shampoos and dilute sodium hypochlorite (bleach) rinses have been recommended in this situation but such products are considered unpleasant to use and may dry the skin. The authors describe the development of a shampoo containing sodium hypochlorite and salicylic acid. Clients reported that the product was effective in treating the pyoderma, easy and pleasant for the owner to use, and did not dry their dogs' skin.

Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 55(3), 117-123

Body composition scoring of cats using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

Martha Cline and others, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Normal weight obesity is a condition in humans in which patients may have an apparently healthy bodyweight but with fat comprising more than 30% of their body mass. The authors used dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to compare the body composition of indoor neutered cats with a normal body composition score and intact outdoor cats. Fat accounted for 22.1% of the bodyweight of the indoor cats compared with 17.1% of the outdoor cats. Their findings show that neutering and confinement indoors may increase body fat percentage and bone mineral density in cats with an ideal body condition score.

Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 21 (6), 459-464

Owners assessment of disease progression in canine osteoarthritis

Anna Andersson and Annika Bergstrom, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease seen commonly in ageing dogs. Various owner questionnaires have been developed to assist in the monitoring and management of this condition. The authors assess the validity of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons' canine orthopaedic index questionnaire after modification and translation into Swedish. They found that the results of this 16-item questionnaire were reliable for use both as a research tool and in a clinical setting.

Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 61:29 (Open Access)

Arterial hypotension and bradycardia in dogs given different sedative drugs

Manuel Martin-Flores and others, Cornell University Ithaca, New York

Acepromazine and dexmedetomidine are two of the most commonly used agents for pre-anaesthetic sedation in veterinary practice. They are chemically unrelated and have different cardiopulmonary effects. The authors reviewed the records on 341 ovariohysterectomy procedures in dogs given one or other sedative agent before isoflurane anaesthesia. Those dogs given acepromazine were 2.61 times more likely to develop hypotension than those receiving dexmedetomidine while the odds of developing bradycardia were higher with dexmedetomidine than acepromazine.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 255(2), 193-1997

Use of a hazard analysis tool to assess the welfare of dogs in rescue centres

Laura Arena and others, University of Teramo, Italy

Italian law forbids the euthanasia of dogs in rescue shelters purely because they have no owner This may mean dogs spending the rest of their lives in a shelter, which is likely to have an adverse impact on their welfare. The authors describe a protocol to assess the welfare of dogs kept in 64 long term shelters in Italy Their findings highlight the importance of factors such as adequate bedding on the dogs' physical health, and of the shelter environment in exacerbating behavioural problems. They suggest that by identifying potential risk factors, the protocol may help to improve welfare standards in shelters

Animal Welfare 28(3), 353-363 

DOI: 10.1080/17415349.2019.1664022

• VOL 34 • November 2019 • Veterinary Nursing Journal