Dissolution of struvite cystoliths in dogs through diet and concurrent antimicrobials

Jonathan Dear and others, University of California, Davis

Struvite uroliths are the second most common form of bladder stones in dogs, producing clinical signs of dysuria and haematuria. The condition occurs more often in bitches than male dogs and is usually a consequence of bacterial urinary tract infection, often due to Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. The authors describe a study using a dry therapeutic urinary diet and concurrent administration of targeted antimicrobials (amoxycillin or enrofloxacin). In 10 dogs with clinical evidence of cystolithiasis, radiographic dissolution of the uroliths was achieved in five cases, while surgical removal was necessary in the other five animals. They note that careful case selection would increase the likelihood of successful dietary treatment as the presence of urinary calcium phosphate may prevent stone dissolution.

BMC Veterinary Research 15:273 (Open Access)

Antiemetics in the prevention of postoperative gastro-oesophageal reflux in dogs

Ciaran Jones and Boel Fransson, Washington State University

Regurgitation after anaesthesia and surgery is an important cause of morbidity, including aspiration pneumonia, oesophagitis, and oesophageal strictures/perforation. The authors assessed the incidence of regurgitation in 93 canine patients undergoing surgery at a university clinic, and the efficacy of the antiemetic drugs maropitant citrate and metoclopramide hydrochloride in preventing such incidents. They found there was no reduction in gasto-oesophageal reflux in those dogs receiving treatment.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 255(4), 437-445

Owners’ perceptions of medications used in treating feline behavioural problems

Emma Grigg and others, Colorado State University Fort Collins

A range of psychoactive medications, herbal supplements, cannabinoid extracts and pheromone products have been introduced for treating cats with behavioural problems. The authors carried out a survey of US cat owners to assess their knowledge of, and attitudes towards the various treatment options. A high proportion of respondents reported that their cats had behavioural issues but only about half were aware that treatments are available and very few had sought veterinary help. These results suggest there is a missed opportunity for veterinary staff to help cat owners improve the relationship with their pet.

Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 21(10), 902-909

Route and timing of nutrition in dogs with septic peritonitis

Kristin Smith and others, University of Minnesota, St. Paul

Nutritional support is a key component in the recovery of hospitalised patients but there is little published information on appropriate protocols for providing this care in veterinary patients with sepsis. The authors compared the outcomes in 68 dogs with septic peritonitis receiving nutritional support through voluntary feeding, use of a feeding tube, parenteral nutrition or a combination of the latter two. Their results show that dogs that received any form of parenteral nutrition had longer stays in hospital and a poorer survival rate, although they have been more ill on admittance than dogs assigned to other treatments.

Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 29, 288-295

Ultrasonographic appearance of urine and urinalysis in dogs and cats

Ferran Valls Sanchez and others, Animal Health Trust, Newmarket

Abdominal ultrasound may detect changes in the echogenicity of urine but the significance of such changes may be unclear This will usually lead to further tests involving ultrasound guided cystocentesis, examination of urinary sediment and bacterial culture. The authors evaluated the association between ultrasound urine echogenicity and sediment examination in cats and dogs. They found there was a poor association between the results of sediment analysis and the ultrasonographic appearance of the urine. Echoic urine had low positive predictive value for active sediment.

Journal of Small Animal Practice 60(6), 361-366

Use of a synbiotic mixture in the prevention of antibiotic-induced diarrhoea

Jacqueline Whittemore and others, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Diarrhoea is a common side-effect of antibiotic therapy and is considered a major cause of non-compliance with the treatment. The authors investigated the effects of a synbiotic (a probiotic and prebiotic mixture) on the development of AAGS (antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal signs) in healthy dogs given enrofloxacin and metronidazole. In a two-way crossover study, administering synbiotic in the first phase led to milder AAGS signs when dogs were given placebo eight weeks later in the second phase, showing that treatment may have long term benefits.

Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 33, 1619-1626 

DOI: 10.1080/17415349.2019.1693088

• VOL 35 • January 2020 • Veterinary Nursing Journal