Nutrition and the ageing brain of dogs and cats

Kimberley May and Dorothy Laflamme, Nestle Purina Petcare, St Louis, Missouri

Ageing causes various physical, metabolic and functional changes in the brain that can negatively affect cognition and produce behavioural signs. Certain nutrients have been shown to be important in maintaining cognition and brain function in older animals while deficiencies in key factors can accelerate brain ageing. The authors review the evidence on the beneficial effects of nutrients such as B vitamins, anti-oxidants, omega-3 fatty acids and various so-called nutraceuticals for the ageing feline and canine brain. They note that while cognitive decline and dysfunction may occur in older pets, neither should be accepted as an inevitable consequence of ageing. Nutritional interventions targeted to address underlying risk factors provide opportunities to slow cognitive decline, mitigate the behavioural signs of cognitive dysfunction and improve quality of life for senior pets.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 255(11), 1245-1254

Efficacy of imepitoin for the control of noise-induced fear and anxiety in dogs

Odilo Engel and others, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany

Noise phobia is a common behavioural problem in dogs for which there is a limited range of treatment options. The authors examined the efficacy of the GABAA-receptor agonist imepitoin used in the run up to New Year's Eve fireworks displays in 238 client-owned dogs with noise phobia. A significantly higher proportion of owners in the treatment group reported a good or excellent response compared with the placebo group and therefore imepitoin does effectively control fear and anxiety associated with noise phobia in dogs.

Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 33:2675-2684

Outcomes in 49 cases in which canine blood was transfused into cats

Alice Le Gal and others, Royal Veterinary College, Potters Bar

Xenotransfusion of canine blood into cats is a recognised technique in situations where there in no source of compatible feline blood available to treat anaemic patients. The authors describe 49 cases in which cats with anemia due to haemorrhage, haemolytic anaemia, neoplasia, etc were given canine blood. Ten cats died or were euthanased within 24 hours, while 18 survived for a week and 15 were still alive more than six months later The results show that xenotransfusion of canine packed red cells into cats is feasible but haemolysis should be expected between one and six days after transfusion.

Journal of Small Animal Practice Online 22 December 2019

Postoperative regurgitation in dogs with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome

Joy Fenner and others, Dick White Referrals, Six Mile Bottom, Cambridgeshire

Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome is a condition which often requires surgery to alleviate its clinical signs. Dogs belonging to BOAS- affected breeds may also be prone to regurgitate stomach contents during and after surgery The authors examined the records of 258 dogs which underwent corrective surgery and found that in 34% of cases, regurgitation occurred in the first 24 hours after surgery The risk of regurgitation was particularly high in younger dogs. There is a need for owners to be counselled on the risks of this postoperative complication.

Veterinary Surgery 49(1), 53-60

Antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and acetic acid/ boric acid cleansing wipes

Rebecca Rafferty and others, University of Edinburgh

Antimicrobial wipes have become a popular tool in veterinary practices in efforts to control skin infections in dogs but there is little published data on the in vitro antimicrobial and in vivo residual activity of these products. The authors tested the efficacy of wipes impregnated with chlorhexidine (CHX) or acetic acid/boric acid (ABBA) against a range of common skin pathogens. Although the ABBA products were ineffective, CHX-based wipes showed in vitro activity against methicillin resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Escherichia coli and Malassezia pachyderrnatis. However, none of these products showed residual activity on hair

BMC Veterinary Research 15:382

Assessment of a commercially available blood pressure monitor in dogs

Jeannette Cremer and others, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge

Equipment may be introduced for use in veterinary practice with limited data available from independent studies on its clinical application. Therefore practitioners may have minimal guidance on which to base their decisions when buying diagnostic technology. The authors investigated a commercially-available oscillometric blood pressure device when compared with a standard invasive blood pressure recorder in awake and anaesthetised dogs. They found that agreement between the two methods was poor and the oscillometric device did not fulfill current US guidelines for this type of equipment.

American Journal of Veterinary Research 80(12), 1067-1073

DOI: 10.1080/17415349.2020.1714169 

Veterinary Nursing Journal • VOL 35 • March 2020 •