Fluorescent tagging for environmental surface cleaning surveillance

Gregory Langdon and others, Ohio State University Columbus

Healthcare-associated infections are a persistent problem in human and veterinary medicine. If not properly cleaned and disinfected, the clinical environment can be an important source of infections with bacterial strains that are often difficult to treat. There is a need for methods that will confirm whether cleaning practices have been effective. The authors used fluorescent tagging to mark environmental surfaces in a small animal hospital and employed an ultraviolet light source to show where the tagging had been removed during routine cleaning. Their findings show that important areas of the clinic were unlikely to be effectively cleaned, posing a potential risk to human and animal health. The study also demonstrated that commercial products can be used to assess environmental cleaning and to target specific areas of the clinic needing further attention.

Journal of Small Animal Practice 61, 121-126

Successful treatment of severe cannabinoid toxicity with extracorporeal therapy

Christine Culler and Alessio Vigani, North Carolina State University Raleigh

Following the legalisation of cannabis in many US states, accidental drug intoxication has become a more frequent presentation at veterinary clinics. The authors describe the use of extracorporal therapy to treat severe intoxication in which the patient showed hyperlipidaemia, making it inadvisable to offer standard treatment with an intravenous lipid emulsion. The seven-year-old Labrador bitch received a three-hour session of charcoal haemoperfusion and haemodialysis, used in series. There have been no previous reports of using this strategy in canine patients. The dog fully recovered and was discharged 36 hours later

Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 29:674-679

Survival of sick cats after receiving emergency transfusions of canine blood

Alice Le Gal and others, Royal Veterinary College, Potters Bar

Xenotransfusions of canine blood have been given on occasions to cats with life-threatening anaemia at many veterinary centres. The authors describe the clinical findings in 49 cases in which matched feline blood was unavailable to treat patients with clinical emergencies such as heavy perioperative bleeding, immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia or neoplasia. Ten cats in the group died within 24 hours of the transfusion, presumably due to the pre-existing condition. Eighteen cats survived for one week and 15 were still alive at around six months later The authors assess the incidence of delayed haemolytic transfusion reactions and offer guidance on minimising those risks.

Journal of Small Animal Practice, Published Online December 22

Evaluation of mineral content of commercially available cat foods

Stacie Summers and others, Colorado State University Fort Collins

High dietary phosphorus levels have been implicated as a factor in the development of chronic kidney disease in cats. While dietary guidelines cite minimum required levels for dietary components in commercial pet food products, there are no specified maxima. The authors analysed the calcium, phosphorus and magnesium levels in 82 products. Their findings show that the concentrations of phosphorus and calcium in many commercially available cat foods are highly variable. They recommend changes in regulatory guidelines on the maximum phosphorus concentration in cat foods in view of the potential risks of excessive intake in some pet cats.

Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 34:266-273

Analgesic effects of intraorbital sponges following enucleation in dogs

Yael Shilo-Benjamini and others, University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel

Enucleation is a common procedure in small animal practice. It may result in severe postoperative pain that can lead to so-called phantom pain syndrome. The authors examined the effects of an absorbable gelatin haemostatic sponge soaked with 1% ropivacaine solution and inserted intraorbitally following enucleation in 10 dogs. Pain scores were significantly higher in the control group at extubation and a greater proportion required methadone analgesia or were crying and seeking attention in the first 24 hours after surgery

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 255:11, 1255-1262

A novel approach to welfare interventions in problem multicat households

Kayleigh Hill and others, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington

Many of the cats entering welfare charity shelters are animals confiscated during investigations of pet hoarding cases. Usually these animals will have been inadequately cared for and they are usually considered poor candidates for adoption. The authors describe a different approach to dealing with animal hoarding incidents in which the cats remained with the owners, who agreed to undergo basic animal care education and to have all their female cats neutered. When visited two and 12 months after the initial contact, the cats' welfare scores were significantly improved. In three of the 10 households. the owner had voluntarily agreed to relinquish all their cats.

BMC Veterinary Research 15:434

Comparison of hydroalcohol and chlorhexidine solutions for aseptic skin preparation

Erik Asimus and others, Toulouse National Veterinary School, France

Most surgical site infections in small animal patients are related to pathogens present on the skin surface. Adequate preparation of the site is essential in preventing these infections. The authors compared the results of three methods involving scrubbing with chlorhexidine gluconate, washing with mild soap followed by a hydroalcoholic solution, and using the hydroalcoholic solution alone. They found that rubbing with the hydroalcoholic solution prevented bacterial growth for at least three hours and was faster and easier to perform than scrubbing with chlorhexidine.

Veterinary Surgery 48: 1466-1472

Effects of storage on feline whole blood

Eva Spada and others, University of Milan, Italy

Although there is growing interest in transfusion medicine in small animals, there is little information available on the underlying science in cats and most clinical decisions are based on extrapolations from results in humans or dogs. The authors investigate the effects of storage for up to 35 days on feline blood collected using an open system in which anticoagulant is added through an injection port before collection. There were statistically significant increases in percentage haemolysis, reductions in glucose and increases in potassium and sodium levels. These changes are likely to affect the quality and utility of stored whole blood.

The Veterinary Journal 254, 105396

Provision of positive air pressure treating hypoxaemic acute respiratory failure

Gianila Ceccherini and others, University of Pisa, Italy

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ventilation delivered through a helmet device has been used successfully in treating respiratory emergencies in people. Helmet CPAP treatment does not appear to have been used before in dogs.The authors used a paediatric device in 17 dogs with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure. Meas
urements of respiratory rate, heart rate and rhythm, mean blood pressure, mucosal membrane colour and rectal temperature showed that the device was well tolerated and was effective in increasing oxygen tension indices in 15 of the 17 dogs.

Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 30:1, 41-49

Failures in addressing the environmental needs of cats

Gabrielle Lawson and others, The Cat Clinic, Hobart, Tasmania

An increasing proportion of cats are kept in multi-cat households where they live restricted or indoor lifestyles. Where there is a lack of

knowledge among owners about feline behaviour and biology, there is the potential for significant welfare problems if toileting facilities are inadequate and feeding practices are inappropriate. The authors carried out a survey of more than 12,000 cat owning households looking at their facilities and animal husbandry practices. They found that the incidence of urinary problems was higher in multi-cat households and those with fewer litter trays, less frequent cleaning and silica crystal-type cat litter

Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Published Online December 16

Effect of sample collection site and prandial state on results of blood glucose tests

Jose Guevera and others, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Portable blood glucose meters are often used for monitoring blood glucose in hospitalised veterinary patients. The authors used one of these devices before and after the dogs consumed a meal and to assess the effects of the blood collection site. They found that glucose concentrations in capillary blood from the medial aspect of the ear were closer to the levels measured in venous blood, when compared with samples taken from the carpal pad or the oral mucosa. There were no significant differences between pre- and post-prandial blood glucose concentrations.

American Journal of Veterinary Research 80:11, 995-1000

Efficacy of a practice-level communication training programme

Karen Cornell and others, Institute for Healthcare Communication, New Haven, Connecticut

There is growing evidence of the important role that communication with clients can have on clinical outcomes in veterinary practice. The authors investigated the impact of an intensive two-day communication skills training programme on staff confidence, client satisfaction and financial performance at five veterinary practices. When re-assessed three months later staff members' confidence in their communications skills had improved but there were no significant changes in client satisfaction (which was already high) or in financial metrics.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 255(12), 1377-1388

Veterinary Nursing Journal • VOL 35 • April 2020 •