Assessment of two devices to aid safe navigation in blind dogs

Kathleen Bedard and others, University of Georgia, Athens

Many different ophthalmological conditions can result in permanent blindness in dogs, such as glaucoma, traumatic eye rupture, retinal disorders, inoperable cataracts and optic nerve disorders. Considerable effort has gone into finding both treatments for these conditions and alternative methods to improve the quality of life for blind dogs. The authors investigated two visual aid devices created to help blind dogs move around without colliding with objects in their way Dogs equipped with a physical barrier; called Muffin's Halo showed an improved ability to navigate their way through a maze. But those fitted with an echolocation device (BlindSight) were able to find their way through the maze much quicker than those fitted with the halo or unassisted controls. These findings will assist veterinary staff to make evidence-based recommendations to clients with blind dogs.

Journal of Small Animal Practice

Attitudes of owners and veterinary staff to home dental care of dogs

Karolina Enlund and others, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala

Although it is largely preventable through regular brushing, periodontal disease remains one of the most common health problems in dogs. Brushing would reduce costs to the owner as well as benefitting animal welfare but there is little published information on the reasons for the lack of owner compliance. The authors report the results of a questionnaire survey of Swedish dog owners, veterinarians and veterinary nurses. Several areas were identified for improving communications between veterinary staff and owners on the importance of home care in maintaining oral health in dogs.

BMC Veterinary Research 16:90

Cobalamin status and disorders of cobalamin metabolism in dogs

Stefanie Kather and others, University of Leipzig, Germany

Disorders of cobalamin (vitamin B ) metabolism are increasingly recognised in veterinary patients and may be related to chronic gastrointestinal disease or hereditary defects in metabolising this vitamin. Measurements of serum cobalamin, often in combination with serum folate concentrations, are now commonly conducted in small animal practice but the interpretation of the results may be challenging. The authors review current understanding of cobalamin deficiency identify breed predispositions and offer advice on the management of dogs with hypocobalaminaemia.

Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 34(I), I3-28

Restoration of arterial oxygen tension in horses recovering from general anaesthesia

David Bardell and others, University of Liverpool

Arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) drives oxygen binding to haemoglobin and together with haemoglobin concentration, it is a major determinant of the oxygen content of arterial blood. While arterial hypoxaemia is common in anasthetised horses, there is little information on changes in PaO2 during recovery The authors measured respiratory parameters in healthy horses before and immediately following anaesthesia. Their findings show that PaO2 is not restored to baseline levels for at least one hour after recovery but controlled mandatory ventilation did improve pulmonary function.

Equine Veterinary Journal 52(2), 187-193

Bacterial contamination of surgical scrubs and the effects of laundry procedures

Panagiotis Kokkinos and others, Animal Health Trust, Newmarket

In human hospitals, contamination of clinical uniforms is recognised as a potential source of community infections and staff are usually prohibited from wearing hospital clothing outside the workplace. The authors investigated the incidence of bacterial contamination of scrubs worn by vets and vet nurses during a single shift. They found significant contamination with various bacterial species and these organisms were still detectable after laundering. Contaminated workwear can therefore spread bacterial infections outside the clinic and home laundry at 30oC reduces but does not eliminate this risk.

Journal of Small Animal Practice

Influence of music on stress responses during veterinary treatment in cats

Amanda Hampton and others, Louisiana State University Baton Rouge

Visiting a veterinary clinic will be a stressful experience for many cats. Music is known to have calming effects on some animal species, as well as humans. The authors investigated whether music may alter stress scores and ease of handling in feline patients. Groups of cats were exposed to silence, classical music and ‘cat-specific' music containing squeaks and other noises intended to appeal to the feline ear Cats listening to the cat specific music had lower stress and better handling scores than those hearing classical music or silence.

Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 22(2), 122-128

Effects of storage temperature on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid culture results

Michelle Curran and others, Auburn University, Alabama

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples undergo bacterial culture as one of the main diagnostic strategies for investigating pneumonia cases. Inappropriate handling of the samples can influence bacterial survival, providing misleading information for guiding treatment options. The authors investigated the effects on bacterial survival of storage at temperatures up to 37oC. Their findings suggest that storage at up to 4oC for up to 24 hours will not influence culture results but exposure to normal room temperature may lead to overgrowth of Escherichia coli or Bordetella bronchiseptica.

Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 34(1), 160-165

A reagent test strip for measuring blood urea nitrogen in rabbits and ferrets

Megan Cabot and others, Clinic for the Rehabilitation of Wildlife, Sanibel Island, Florida

Blood urea nitrogen measurements are useful when investigating cases involving azotaemia, a feature of various conditions seen in both rabbits and ferrets. The authors evaluated a reagent test strip method for point- of-care measurements of BUN levels in those species. The product was shown to be reasonably accurate for estimating BUN concentration but due to the risk of false-positive results, it was better for ruling out rather than ruling in azotaemia in rabbits. False negative results were more of a concern when testing ferrets.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256(4), 449-454

Prevalence of Salmonella isolates from reptiles in Norwegian zoos

Ane Mohn Bjelland and others, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo

Reptiles are known to be asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella species in their gastrointestinal mucosa, including serovars that are important human pathogens. Although legislation was introduced in Norway in 2017 to loosen controls on private individuals keeping reptiles, there is little evidence on which to estimate the likely risks of that policy The authors investigated the Salmonella strains found in reptiles from three Norwegian zoos.They found evidence of infection with various pathogenic strains and urge greater
education efforts to minimise the public health risk.

Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 62:3

Influence of room temperature on perioperative inadvertent hypothermia in dogs

Jenniffer Rodriguez-Diaz and others, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is common in patients recovering from general anaesthesia and may lead to various adverse effects such as impaired wound healing and respiratory distress. The authors investigated the effects of raising the temperature in the induction and operating rooms of a veterinary hospital on the recovery of dogs and cats undergoing open surgery. The incidence of perioperative inadvertent hypothermia was reduced in veterinary patients treated in rooms warmed to 24oC and this was associated with faster recovery times.

Veterinary Surgery 49(2), 256-264

Management of otitis externa in dogs with an LED- illuminated gel

Adolfo Maria Tambella and others, University of Camerino, Italy

Canine otitis externa is a painful condition which can be difficult to control in dogs that resent having topical treatments applied to their sensitive ears. The authors compare the efficacy of a topical LED-illuminated gel compared with standard therapy When illuminated, the gel re-emits fluorescent light which appears to stimulate physiological responses, promoting healing and controlling bacterial growth. When applied twice- weekly, the gel was shown to be beneficial in the management of otitis externa, helping to control inflammation and local pain, and increasing treatment compliance.

BMC Veterinary Research 16:91

Access to veterinary hospitals for clients with mobility- related disabilities

Emma Winkley and others, Kansas State University Manhattan

Older people constitute an increasing proportion of the population in western countries and this has been accompanied by growth in the numbers of people with physical disabilities. In many countries, the owners of public buildings are required by law to take account of the needs of people with mobility problems. The authors investigated the extent to which US veterinary practices are able to meet their obligation to provide access for disabled clients. Their findings indicate that there is an awareness among veterinarians of potential barriers to access for disabled clients and a willingness to address them. The authors therefore developed a checklist for use in efforts to maximise access for those clients.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256(3), 333-339

Veterinary Nursing Journal • VOL 35 • June 2020 •