Effects of kennel noise on hearing in dogs

Constant noise is known to cause physiological and psychological effects in various non-human species. However, there have been few investigations on the effects of environmental noise on the auditory system in dogs. The authors evaluated the impact of noise on dogs housed in either an animal shelter or a veterinary college kennels. Sound levels reached the equivalent of 100 to 108 dB in both kennels and after six months, all 14 dogs that underwent hearing tests showed measurable changes in hearing. So environmental noise reached levels known to cause damage to human hearing and there was evidence of hearing damage in these dogs. It is, therefore, suggested that noise abatement strategies should be a standard part of kennel designs and operation, particularly if it is intended to house dogs there for prolonged periods.

American Journal of Veterinary Research 73(4): 482-489. 

Peter Scheifele and others. University of Cincinnati, Ohio.

Links between weight loss, stress and infections in cats living in shelters

Cats housed in welfare shelters will experience an unfamiliar environment which may be noisy and stressful, particularly if dogs are housed nearby. The authors investigated the effects of chronic stress on 60 adult cats admitted to a shelter. This caused weight loss in 82% of cases, with 25% losing more than 10% of their original body weight. Urinary tract infections developed in 58% of the population and those cats showing high stress scores were more likely to develop infections. Therefore, efforts should be considered to identify and mitigate stress in cats in shelters.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 240(5): 570-576.

Aki Tanaka and others, University of California, Davis. 

Effective weight loss programmes for obese cats

Excessive body weight is the most common nutritional disorder in cats and is associated with a range of serious secondary conditions. Simply recommending a diet designed to encourage weight loss will rarely result in significant changes in body condition. The authors describe the features of a successful weight control programme for obese cats. This will depend on a co-operative approach between the clinical team and the cat's owners. Clear instructions are needed on the quantity and type of food to be given. Encouraging some form of exercise is also important and may be helped by enriching the home environment. Providing supportive follow-up will also be beneficial.

Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 14(5): 327-336.

Kathryn Michel and Margie Scherk, University of Pennsylvania. 

Treatment of burn injury and smoke inhalation in small animals

Severe burn injuries have received little attention in the veterinary literature and most available information has been extrapolated from advances in human medicine. The authors review current knowledge on the evaluation and treatment of small animal burns patients. Patients with severe burn injuries require immediate and aggressive fluid therapy, while multimodal analgesia and daily wound dressing will be necessary throughout the recovery period.

From experience in human medicine, it is likely that patients with smoke inhatation damage as well as severe burns will have a worse prognosis than those with either injury alone.

Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 22(2): 187-200.

Lindsay Vaughn and others, New England Animal Medical Center, West Bridgewater, Massachusetts. 

Effects of nasal oxygen insufflation in bitches during recovery from ovariohysterectomy

Adequate tissue oxygenation is essential for various aspects of wound healing, including neutrophil killing of bacterial pathogens, collagen production and epithelialisation. The authors compared the effects of breathing normal room air and air enriched with oxygen administered via a nasal tube for two hours after a neutering procedure. A non-invasive tissue oximeter showed that tissue oxygen saturation in the area adjacent to the linea alba and in the inguinal region was significantly better in those animals receiving supplemental oxygen. This is an inexpensive and easily applicable method to aid wound healing after surgery.

Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 21(6): 633-638.

Lauren Sullivan and others, Colorado State University. 

Efficacy and safety of pre-operative meloxicam in cats undergoing claw removal

Lingering concerns about the safety of analgesic agents in cats may be one reason for the reluctance of some practitioners to use routine analgesia in feline patients undergoing surgery. The authors investigated the safety and efficacy of one of the new generation analgesics, meloxicam, in client-owned cats undergoing claw removal. Blood biochemistry, analgesia score, lameness and the need for rescue analgesia were assessed for three or five days peri-operatively. There were no differences in safety parameters, but those cats receiving pre-operative analgesia had statistically better gait scores than those which only received postoperative treatment. 

Canadian Veterinary Journal 53(3): 257-264. 

Walt Ingwersen and others, Boehringer Ingelheim Canada, Ontario. 

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents in small animal practice

Millions of cats and dogs around the world receive routine non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents as therapy for osteoarthritis, postoperative analgesia and following trauma. There is also growing interest in their use in cancer patients. An increasing number of products are now available to meet this demand. The author examines the mode of action and the clinical applications of these agents in small animal practice. He focuses particularly on the latest third generation NSAIDs, such as firocoxib, robenacoxib, mavocoxib, deracoxib and tepoxilin, which he says offer new opportunities for better clinical management.

European Journal of Companion Animal Practice 21(2): 171-179.

Stuart Carmichael, Vets Now Referrals, Dunfermline, Fife.

Midazolam-ketamine-xylazine infusion for total intravenous anaesthesia in horses

US practitioners generally use a combination of guaifenesin, ketamine and xylazine for long-term intravenous anaesthesia in equine patients. However, no injectable solution of guaifenesin powder is manufactured commercially in the US and practices have to buy the agent in powder form and make solutions as needed. The authors investigate an alternative anaesthesia protocol involving midazolam, ketamine and xylazine for intravenous administration in horses. This combination provided total IV anaesthesia for about 70 minutes after induction with four of six horses requiring supplemental ketamine.

American Journal of Veterinary Research 73(4): 470-475. 

John Hubbell and others, Ohio State University.

Bacterial contamination of surfaces and equipment in small animal hospitals

Although surveys suggest that a majority of veterinary teaching hospitals have experienced outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections, the prevalence of such incidents in private practices is largely unknown. The authors investigated the risk of bacterial contamination in ten small animal hospitals which were visited at four-month intervals. Enterococci were found on samples from cage doors, stethoscopes, thermometers and mouth gags. Antimicrobial resistance was common in Enterococcus faecium isolates, while virulence traits were more commonly found in E. faecalis isolates.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Asso
ciation 240(4.): 437-445.

Kate KuKanich and others, Kansas State University. 

Effects of a multi-strain synbiotic treatment in cats with chronic diarrhoea

Chronic diarrhoea is a common presenting complaint in cats of all ages, and faecal examination will often show no evidence of parasitic infection. In such cases, treatment with probiotic may be helpful in providing symptomatic benefits. The authors examined the effects of a 21 -day course of treatment with a proprietary 'synbiotic' (Proviable-DC), a nutritional supplement combining probiotics and prebiotics. A 21-day course of treatment was given to 53 cats with chronic diarrhoea of unknown origin. The mean faecal score decreased from 6 to 4.4, indicating a significantly firmer stool.

Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 14(4): 240-245. 

Marcia Hart and others, Colorado State University. 

Comparison of two tests for detecting canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus

Outbreaks of distemper and parvovirus are common in animal shelters and may cause significant morbidity and mortality. Effective control of these diseases depends on detecting any animals carrying the virus on admission. The authors compare the results of a semi- quantitative ELISA and an immunofluorescence assay in detecting antibodies to both viruses. The ELISA was found to have fewer false positive results than the immunofluorescence assay and could be performed on site with the results available in less than an hour. So this is an accurate and practical test for evaluating the infection risk in dogs exposed to outbreaks of either virus. 

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 240(9): 1084-1087.

Lauren Gray and others, University of Florida. 

Effectiveness of a dental chew on periodontal disease in toy dog breeds

Periodontal disease is a common problem in dogs, and toy breeds are significantly over-represented in the affected group. Although tooth- brushing is recommended as the primary treatment for this condition, many owners have difficulty in persuading their pets to co-operate. So the authors examined the effects of giving a vegetable-based dental chew on periodontal disease parameters in 16 toy dogs receiving a dry food diet. Daily administration of the chews for up to 70 days was shown to reduce halitosis, significantly decrease gingivitis and lead to improvements in plaque and calculus accumulation.

Journal of Veterinary Dentistry 28(4): 230-235. David Clarke and others,

Dental Care for Pets, Hallam, Victoria, Australia. 

Preventing dogs treated for obesity from regaining weight

Regaining weight following a successful diet is common in humans, but there is little published information on the long-term progress of dogs treated for obesity. The authors assessed the changes in the weight of 33 obese dogs which had successfully lost weight. The follow-up period ranged from 119 to 1,828 days, with a median of 640 days. Fourteen dogs maintained their new weight, three continued to lose weight (more than 5% of their post-treatment weight) and 16 gained more than 5%. Those dogs that continued receiving the low calorie diet fed during the treatment period tended to regain much less weight than those that were switched to a standard maintenance diet.

The Veterinary Journal 192(1): 65-70. 

Alex German and others, University of Liverpool. 

To cite this and other BVNA content use either DOI: 10.1111/j.2045-0648.2012.00205.x or Veterinary Nursing Journal Vol 27 pp286-287

Veterinary Nursing Journal • VOL 27 • August 2012 •