ABSTRACT: Measuring body temperature is a key part of a thorough clinical examination. Deviations from the normal range can be life-threatening and require immediate action. Despite temperature measurement being one of the most commonly measured clinical parameters – the T in TPR – there is little robust, evidence-based veterinary literature available to support the normal temperature range for many companion animals. There is also limited information on normal temperature ranges for different anatomical sites. This review will outline the options available for monitoring body temperature, the limitations of the thermometers available and the need for more research into this “hot topic”.


Emily qualified as a veterinary surgeon in 2007 and has worked in small animal first opinion practice ever since. Emily now course leads the BSc (top-up) in Veterinary Nursing Science and teaches veterinary nursing students on both the FdSc and BSc courses at Nottingham Trent University. Emily’s research interests include temperature monitoring and heat-related illness in companion animals.
Email: emily.hall@ntu.ac.uk

Keywords: temperature reference range; thermometry; temperature monitoring;
rectal thermometer; ear thermometer

To cite this article: VNJ 2021 Volume 36 (1) January pp19-23

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